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Encyclopedia Of World Writers, Beginnings To 20...



The definitive reference to world writers from ancient times through the 20th century, this three-volume set presents the broad spectrum of world literature's great contributors. Hundreds of entries on major writers throughout the world cover the literary traditions of early Greece and Rome, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas. Each volume contains critical biographies of poets, dramatists, fiction writers, diarists, and essayists. Certain anonymous works—such as epics, odes, fables, sacred texts, and creation myths—are listed by title.Each entry includes a biographical sketch and a bibliography. Many also contain a synopsis and critical analysis of one or more of the author's major works. Coverage represents the high school world literature curriculum, from the anonymous epic Gilgamesh to Virgil and Homer, from Voltaire and Molière, and Margaret Atwood and Umberto Eco.World Writers: Beginnings through the 13th CenturyThis volume covers world writers and great anonymous works from the beginnings of world literature through the Middle Ages. Entries include Beowulf, Gilgamesh, and the Song of Roland, as well as such famous writers as Dante, Marco Polo, Chrétien de Troyes, Confucius, and Murasaki Shikibu.World Writers: 14th through 18th CenturiesThis volume covers world writers from the year 1300 to the year 1800. Entries include Cervantes, Petrarch, Voltaire, Erasmus, Ibn Khaldun, and Cao Xuequin.World Writers: 19th and 20th CenturiesThis volume covers world writers from the last two centuries, including Chinua Achebe, Margaret Atwood, Mikhail Bulgakov, Umberto Eco, Gao Xingjian, Knut Hamsun, Mohammad Iqbal, Naghib Mahfouz, Marcel Proust, and Emile Zola.




Encyclopedia Of World Writers, Beginnings To 20...



The beginnings of the modern idea of the general-purpose, widely distributed printed encyclopedia precede the 18th century encyclopedists. However, Chambers' Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1728), and the Encyclopédie of Diderot and D'Alembert (1751 onwards), as well as Encyclopædia Britannica and the Conversations-Lexikon, were the first to realize the form we would recognize today, with a comprehensive scope of topics, discussed in depth and organized in an accessible, systematic method. Chambers, in 1728, followed the earlier lead of John Harris's Lexicon Technicum of 1704 and later editions (see also below); this work was by its title and content "A Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves".


Encyclopedias are essentially derivative from what has gone before, and particularly in the 19th century, copyright infringement was common among encyclopedia editors. However, modern encyclopedias are not merely larger compendia, including all that came before them. To make space for modern topics, valuable material of historic use regularly had to be discarded, at least before the advent of digital encyclopedias. Moreover, the opinions and world views of a particular generation can be observed in the encyclopedic writing of the time. For these reasons, old encyclopedias are a useful source of historical information, especially for a record of changes in science and technology.[23]


The English Wikipedia, which was started in 2001, became the world's largest encyclopedia in 2004 at the 300,000 article stage.[24] By late 2005, Wikipedia had produced over two million articles in more than 80 languages with content licensed under the copyleft GNU Free Documentation License. As of August 2009, Wikipedia had over 3 million articles in English and well over 10 million combined in over 250 languages. Wikipedia currently has 6,637,914 articles in English. Since 2003, other free encyclopedias like the Chinese-language Baidu Baike and Hudong, as well as English language encyclopedias like Citizendium and Knol have appeared. Knol has been discontinued.


The Suda or Souda (Greek: Σοῦδα) is a massive 10th century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Suidas. It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers.


In the succeeding Qing dynasty, the Qianlong Emperor personally composed 40,000 poems as part of a 4.7 million page library in 4 divisions, including thousands of essays, called the Siku Quanshu which is probably the largest collection of books in the world. It is instructive to compare his title for this knowledge, Watching the waves in a Sacred Sea to a Western-style title for all knowledge. Encyclopedic works, both in imitation of Chinese encyclopedias and as independent works of their own origin, have been known to exist in Japan since the 9th century.[citation needed] 041b061a72


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